翻譯之“道”:譯可譯,非常譯

作者:江蘇翻譯小編(南京翻譯公司) 發布時間:2021-04-11 22:37???? 瀏覽量:
“道可道,非常道;名可名,非常名。無名,天地之始;有名,萬物之母。故常無欲,以觀其妙;常有欲,以觀其徼。此兩者同出而異名,同謂之玄。玄之又玄,眾妙之門。”(出自《道德經》第一章)
 
譯可譯,非常譯;忘其形,得其意。得意,理解之始;忘形,表達之母。故常忘形,以觀其徼;故常得意,以觀其妙。此兩者同出,而異名同理。得意忘形,取舍有度。此翻譯之“道”也。
 
據考生回顧,3.21日高口翻譯考試涉及《道德經》的部分內容,例如:
 
“人法地,地法天,天法道,道法自然。”
 
【注釋】出處為《道德經》第25章。意即:在廣闊無垠的宇宙中,人受大地的承載之恩,所以其行為應該效法大地,而大地又受天的覆蓋,因此大地應時時刻刻效法天的法則而運行。這是太上千古不易的密語,是老子思想精華之所在。
 
譯文: Man follows the earth. The earth follows the universe. The universe follows the Tao. The Tao follows nature.
 
“天人合一”
 
【注釋】“天人合一”為中國哲學思想,儒、道、釋等諸家各有闡述。天指天空,也指天道,還指自然大道,道家道教所說的天,多指自然、天道。天人合一,多指人與道合而“天地與我并生,萬物與我為一”的境界,也指天人相合相應。
 
譯文:harmony between man and nature; unity of man and nature
 
南京翻譯公司

以下我們結合一篇傳統文化類的翻譯真題來解讀此類翻譯中的得意忘形、取舍有度。
 
中華文明歷來注重親仁善鄰,講求和睦相處。
 
【譯文】The Chinese civilization has always given prominence to cordiality, benevolence, and good neighborliness, seeking to live in harmony with others.
 
【解析】“親仁善鄰”可譯為benevolence and good neighborliness或associating with good gentlemen and befriending good neighbors.
 
中國人在對外關系中始終秉承“強不執弱”、“富不侮貧”的精神,主張“協和萬邦”。
 
【譯文】In foreign relations, the Chinese people have always advocated that “the strong should not oppress the weak and the rich should not bully the poor”, and that “all nations live in perfect harmony”.
 
【解析】“強不執弱,富不侮貧”選自《墨子.兼愛》,原文是:天下之人皆相愛,強不執弱,眾不劫寡,富不侮貧,貴不敖賤,詐不欺愚??勺g為:When all the people in the world love one another, then the strong will not overpower the weak, the many will not oppress the few, the wealthy will not mock the poor, the honored will not disdain the humble, and the cunning will not deceive the simple.
 
中國人提倡“海納百川,有容乃大”,主張吸納百家優長、兼集八方精義。
 
譯文:The Chinese uphold that “one should be as inclusive as the ocean, which is vast because it admits hundreds of rivers” and call for drawing upon other’s strength and experiences.
 
解析:對這種多修飾詞語的表達,英譯時一般可采用避虛就實的做法,在翻譯過程中可作適當刪減,也可適當改譯,或將其意隱含在譯文中,而不必一味照字面直譯,確保譯文準確、地道、流暢。
 
南京翻譯社


今天,中國堅定不移地走和平發展道路,既通過維護世界和平來發展自己,又通過自身的發展來促進世界和平。
 
【譯文】Today, China commits itself firmly to peaceful development, accelerating its development by upholding world peace and promoting world peace through its own development.
 
【解析】漢語中多個動詞連用的結構較為常見,英語中一般將其中的主要部分用動詞表達,其余部分則用分詞或其他方式表達,各分句結構之間為主從關系。因而漢譯英時,要根據這些特點,把漢語的并列結構轉為英語的主從結構。
 
中國堅持實施互利共贏的對外開放戰略,真誠愿意同各國廣泛開展合作,真誠愿意兼收并蓄、博采各種文明之長,以合作謀和平、以合作促發展,推動建設一個持久和平、共同繁榮的和諧世界。
 
【譯文】China firmly pursues a strategy of opening-up for mutual benefit and win-win outcomes. It genuinely wishes to enter into extensive cooperation with other countries. It is eager to embrace everything that is useful and draws on the strengths of other civilizations to pursue peace and development through cooperation and promote the building of a harmonious world of enduring peace and common prosperity.
 
解析:遇到漢語長句時,翻譯方法之一是拆分重組,即把一句譯作幾句。這樣意思明了,行文利落,合乎英語的表達習慣。此外,本句中的“真誠愿意......”和“以合作......”出現了兩次,英語則可通過合并省略避免重復,文字也顯得簡潔明了。
 
協和萬邦all nations live in perfect harmony
 
海納百川,有容乃大one should be as inclusive as the ocean, which is vast because it admits hundreds of rivers
 
天行健,君子以自強不息As Heaven keeps vigor through movement, a gentleman should unremittingly practice self-improvement.
 
天下為公 the world is for all
 
天下興亡,匹夫有責everybody is responsible for the rise or fall of the country
 
以人為本people-oriented
 
民惟邦本,本固邦寧people are the foundation of a country; when the foundation is stable, the country is in peace
 
天地之間,莫貴于人nothing is more valuable in the universe than human beings
 
勿以善小而不為,勿以惡小而為之 Do not refrain from what you think is petty benevolence and do what you think petty evil.
 
人而無信,不知其可也a man without trust can hardly accomplish anything.
 
合則強,孤則弱unity means strength, while isolation means weakness.








 
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